Sure agricultural science obj and theory for all members, free get ur copy

Verify Agric obj
1a) commercial agricultural is a type of agriculture
which is
concerned with the production of food,animal and
cah crops in large
quantities of sales. It involvess the cultivations of
large hectares
of land, huge investment of capital, the use of hired
labour and the
use of agro-chemicals
* They assist in rural development by providing
social amenities like,
road,water supply,health centers.
* They carry out research to improve or develop
new crops varieties
* The carry out research to improve or develop
breeds of animals
* Provision of financial support for agricultural
extension project
* Improvement of farmer awarness and agricultural
– Construction of new feeder roads to open up the
rural areas
– Construction of wider ways to link up the river in
– Construction of railways to connect rural area to
the urban centers
– it prevent fragmentation of land since land
aquired under the decree
cannot be shared into bit
– it has facilitated borrowing of capital for further
investment in agriculture
– it has reduce in the number and frequency of
court case over land ownership
– it made land acquisition relatively easier for new
entrant into agriculture
3a)weathering can be defined as the breakdown of
rock into tiny
pieces to form soil
1. planting cover crops:cover crops help to provide
erosion and add more nutrients to the soil.
2. application of compost manure:it help to blind
the sand particles
together and also add more nutrients to the soil.
3. application of farmyard manure:this will add
nutrients and also
improve the structure of the soil.
4. mulching the soil:mulching sandy soil prevent
water loss
through evaporation and nutrient loss by water
3c) determines the level of fertility of the soil.
2.a good soil structure support aeration. also prevent erosion and wodertogging.
4.a good soil structure has a good water retaining
capacity. also supports the growth of crops.
2.slakedlime-ca(OH)2 3.quicklime-cao
4.calcium bicabonate-ca(HCO3)2
3.mealy bugs
– 1.maize-(1)dentmaize(2)flourcorn
– 2.citrus-(1)sweet orange(2)sour orange
– 3.yam-(1)droscoren rotundata-white yam
(2)dioscorea alata-water
* taungga system is the planting of both food crops
and forest trees
on the same piece of land
– 1.the prohibition of bush burning
– 2.ban of indiscriminate culting of timbertrees
– 3.encouraging people to plant trees
i. Mass selection: crop plant are selected or rejected
on d basis of their own performance or merit.
ii. Pure line selection: this type of selection in which
only one crop plant with good characteristics
Dominant character: this is a trait or character that
is expressed in an offspring when two individuals
with contrasting characters or traits are crossed.
Dominant genes on the other hand are genes which
control dominant characters. For instance, in a very
tall plant, there may be the gene for shortness but
the gene has no influence on the gene for tallness.
i. Proper timing of plant
ii. Adoption of better cultivation methods
iii. Use of manures and fertilizers
iv. Control of pests of crops
v. Use of resistant varieties
vi. Use of good crop varieties.
6bi.Cassava mosaic disease
i.Causual Organism
ii.3 Symptoms
1. Stunted growth.
2. Vein clearing
3. Distortion of leaves and stems
iii.2 Preventive and control Measures
1. Uproot and burn infected plants
2. Farm sanitation
animal Improvement refers to the ways of
developing and breeding only
those animals that show the greatest merit under
consideration such as
good feed conversion,growth rate,disease
resistance,egg size etc.
Six Aims Of Animal Improvement
i. To produce animals that can give high yield or
products in form of
ii. To produce animals that can provide high quality
of products such
as,low back-fat thickness,yolk size,shell
iii. To produce animals with high feed conversion
iv. To produce animals with high growth rate.
v. To produce animals with early maturity.
vi. To produce animals which can adapt to climaic
(enviromental) conditions.
Effects of feed shortages in animal production.
i. It leads to low birth weight
ii. It result in poor reproduction or late maturity
iii. Draft animals become weak and unable to work
iv. There is slow growth rate of livestock
v. It also leads to increased susceptibility to
Conditions Neccesary For Siting a Fish Pond.
i. Vegetation of d area: low vegetation, especially
grasslands are
preffered. Woody suites are not suitable because
clearing and stumping
will greatly increase the cost of setting up the fish
ii. Topography: the shape of the land should allow
for easy draining
and filling of pond with water.
iii. Soil structure: soil structure in the area must be
fertile so as
to supply nutrients to the fish. E.g. Clay soil
disease can be defined as any forms of abnormality
in the
functions of the tissues,organs of system of the
animal body.
1.heaalth status of the animal:animals with poor
health stand the
rist of getting infected with diseases faster than
animals with good
2.nutrition:animals which are poorly feed are easily
infected with
diseases than animals that are well feed with
balanced diet
3.sanitation:-poor sanitation,including dirty
environment could
predispose animals to diseases
4.breeds of animals:poor breeds of animals are in
position to get
infected with disease than good breeds
5.unfavourable climate conditions:extremes of
temperature,winds,rainfall e.t.c do predispose farm
animals to
1 animal are culled because of disease
2. failure to reproduce
3. undesirable breed type
4. animals may be culled because of age
5. inherited defects.
6. they may be culled because of death
1. it maximizes the used of land
2. it maximizes the used of labour
3. birds are protected from harsh weather
1. Inadequate transportation system: lack of
vehicles and b@d road
prevent easy transportation of food items from
rural to urban areas.
2. Small scale production: production is in s:all
scale because
peasant farmers produce very little output
.3. Inadequate market infrastructure: infrastructure
such as
electricity, pipe borne water, telephone e.t.c which
can promote good
marketing are inadequate
.4.Inadequate storage facilities: most produce are
wasted due to lack
of storage facilities.
1. planning finances and production to maintain
farm progress against
budget parameters
2. practical activities, e.g. driving tractors,
operating machinery,
feeding livestock, spraying fields, etc
3. marketing the farm’s products
4. buying supplies, such as fertiliser and seeds
5. arranging the maintenance and repair of farm
buildings, machinery
and equipment
6. planning activities for trainee staff, mentoring
and monitoring them
7. maintaining and monitoring the quality of yield,
whether livestock or crops
8. understanding the implications of the weather
and making contingency plans
9. making sure that products are ready for
deadlines, such as auctions
and markets.
Agricultural extension is a proccess whereby
modern farming techniques
and research findings are taken to the farmers
through extension
workers and,problems of the farmers are taken to
research institutions
for solution.
i. Innovators: innovators are farmers who introduce
changes or new
ideas of farming into a new area. Such ideas may
reach the innovators
through the extension agents,mass media,or they
might have seen it
done in another place.
ii. Early Adopters: Early adopters is the second
group that comes in
immediately after the innovators. Depending on a
number of factors as
discussed above,the percentage of early adopters
may be be high or
iii. Late adopters: are the third group of farmers
that can accept new
ideas and techniques. In Most Cases,the number or
percentage of late
adopters is ussually very high.
Importance Of Profit and loss account in
Agricultural Economics.
i. It helps to detect if the farm enterprise is making
profits or losses.
ii. It helps to determine the overall performance of
the farm at the
end of the accounting period.
iii. It aids future planning of the farm for better
Five Sources Of Farm Finance.
i. Agricultural Bank
ii. Commercial Bank
iii.Thrift and saving society
iv. Money Lenders
v. Cooperative societies

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